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四位国外实验动画艺术家创作访谈录(之三)

发表时间:2017-09-13 16:24:33    文章来源:    

四位国外实验动画艺术家创作访谈录(之三)

陈海璐  华东师范大学设计学院

 访谈时间:  2016年,秋季

 记录,翻译:陈海璐

三,劳拉·海特 (美) Laura Heit 访谈

一、相关学习背景

I have a BFA from The School of the Art Institute of Chicago and a MA from the Royal College of Art in London. I have taught at SAIC and was the co-director of the experimental Animation Program at Cal Arts in California. I have been a filmmaker and performance artist for twenty years and have recently begun making immersive animated installations for galleries. I currently live in Portland Oregon on the west coast of the US. I teach animation and media art at Pacific Northwest College of Art.

       我在芝加哥艺术学院获得了美术学士学位,在伦敦皇家艺术学院获得了硕士学位。我曾在芝加哥艺术学院教书,也曾在加州艺术学院担任实验动画系负责人。作为一位电影人和表演艺术家有20年,最近开始为画廊做沉浸式动画装置艺术(immersive animated installations)目前,我在太平洋西北艺术学院教动画和媒体艺术。 


二、您认为动画创作中影响最大的影片和人物是谁?

Early on I was very drawn to the films of Robert Breer, Brothers Quay, Lottie Reiniger, Svankmajer, Sally Cruikshank, Chris Sullivan, Jordon Belson, Janie Geiser, Susan Pitt. Now I tend to watch mostly experimental film and new media work.

I have been most influenced by artists like David Hockney and Alexander Calder. Robert breer is also an influence as he has worked in both lyrical experimental forms of filmmaking as well as moving sculptural work. This is also why I am drawn to the work of Calder, his use of movement in his mobiles is a type of animation I am interested in. All things move and I believe animation is, at it's heart, a study of movement.

       最早,我非常喜欢罗伯特·比尔①,奎氏兄弟②,洛特·雷尼格③,杨·史云梅耶④,莎莉·克鲁克香克⑤,克里斯·沙利文⑥,乔丹·贝尔森⑦,珍妮·凯瑟⑧,苏珊·皮特⑨的动画。现在,我更多地看实验电影和新媒体创作。

       对我来说影响我较深的艺术家是大卫·霍克尼⑩和亚历山大·卡尔德⑪,罗伯特·比尔⑫ 也是一个影响颇深的艺术家,无论是他热情奔放的电影动画形式还是他的移动雕塑。这也是为什么被我被卡尔德的作品所吸引,他在移动手机运动的使用正是我所感兴趣的类型。我相信,所有的运动是动画艺术的核心,是对运动的研究。

注释:

①罗伯特·比尔Robert Breer 美国实验动画大师

②奎氏兄弟Brothers Quay Stephen Quay和Timothy Quay 美国实验动画大师

③洛特·雷尼格Lottie Reiniger ()或译:赖尼格尔·洛特) 德意志联邦共和国女导演(1899-1981),剪影电影的先驱者,用剪刀和纸创造出令人惊异的动画艺术。

④杨·史云梅耶Svankmajer 捷克人,1934年9月4日出生于布拉格,导演,编剧。他学生时代钟情超现实主义艺术,学习欧洲传统木偶戏,并涉猎舞台、诗歌创作、电影等艺术范畴。

⑤莎莉·克鲁克香克Sally Cruikshank 美国漫画家和动画家。

⑥克里斯·沙利文Chris Sullivan 动画家、表演艺术家、电影人、音乐人、生活工作于芝加哥艺术学院。

⑦乔丹·贝尔森Jordon Belson 美国先锋电影艺术家

⑧ 珍妮·凯瑟Janie Geiser 美国视觉艺术家实验电影人

⑨苏珊·皮特Susan Pitt 美国实验动画家,任教于加州艺术学院 

⑩ 大卫·霍克尼 David Hockney 1937年生于英国布拉德福德)无疑是当今国际画坛最具影响力的大师之一,被称为“最著名的英国在世画家”。

⑪亚历山大·卡尔德Alexander Calder(1898-1976年),美国雕塑家。

⑫ 罗伯特·比尔Robert breer 1926-2011美国实验动画家,摄影家,制片人。


三、您认为动画创作中,最重要的方面是什么?

Time. When people try and define animation they often forget to mention time. Animation makes, and is based on adding time to a story or movement. As an animator we are always looking at how to break this down, how to get the pacing right, how to mimic a natural motion.The most interesting animations have carefully considered time. Either in beautifully animated characters or in a moving  abstraction- it is 

equally important.

       节奏(Timing),当人们试图定义动画他们经常会忘记提及节奏。做动画,就是加入节奏去说一个故事或运动。作为一个动画师,我们经常看如何画草图(break down),如何做正确“间距”(Spacing),如何模仿一个自然的动作。最有趣的动画有着非常周到的节奏。不仅在美妙的角色动画中,还有在抽象动画的运动中,都是同等的重要。



四、您最满意的作品的创意灵感来自于哪里?

I look all over. Most often my work connects back to my own experience and interpretation of them. I have been interested for a long time in working to make visual the things we cannot see. Ghosts, emotions, id eas. Animation is good for this. I am currently working on a series of shorts films and an installation around the idea of outer space. As humans we are pulled by this vast unknown, we are interested in what else is out there- who and what else might be in this universe with us. There was recently a report of water on mars and the excitement about the possibility of some kind of extra terrestrial was huge.  The idea that there might be another planet in which to explore...I am making work about his hope, this desire to see things way out there in the unseeable distance. It's about drawing the unconscious, about visualizing a desire or hope. NASA also made available all of their films and sound archives recently so it's been very inspiring to work with this footage.

      到处都是,灵感经常是来自于我自己的经验和诠释。我对我们看不见的东西(世界)感兴趣很久了,鬼怪、情感、想法。动画对于这些来说,是非常好的表现手法。我如今在做一个系列的短片和一个装置,就是为关于这个世界的。作为人我们被拉入这个巨大的未知的世界中去,我们好奇有什么其它的东西在里面--还有什么东西和我们一起在这个宇宙中。最近的一个关于水星上有水的报告,令人兴奋的是它能成为人类新栖息地也是有可能的。除此之外,或许还有另一个星球被发现...我为这个希望而工作,这是一个关于看到愿望和希望的无意识行动。NASA最近也提供了它们所有有价值的录像和声音,这些都是非常鼓舞人心的素材资料。


五、如何开展短片前期,中期,后期的创作的。

I always start with a few images and just draw. A period of free drawing beings out my ideas. I sometimes also collect objects and make cut paper and just play with 

       间距 spacing,在动画制作中,把单线平涂制作方法下的角色动作所呈现的线条,在帧与帧之间显现出的距离,叫做“间距”。一般情况下,“间距”大,则角色动作快,“间距”小,则动作慢。

them under the camera. Moving things, whether it's lines or objects always gets me going creatively. I can't think of anything if I just stare at a blank page.

       我总是从一些小图片开始或者就是直接开始画了。一段时间的自由绘画过程开始我的想法。有时,我总是在照相机下摆弄收集到的一些东西和做的剪纸,移动它们,不管是线条还是形象,总是能让我开始创作。我并不认为我的创意会是从一张空白纸开始。


六、对于创作而言,您觉得创作什么样的题材是会受到更多观众的喜爱的,你有这方面的诉求吗?

I make work that evokes- it illicits an emotion but not always a straight ahead story. I want the viewer/ audience to bring to the work some of themselves, some of their own experience. I want the piece to be put together by the audience, I create the pieces, I lay out the parts. As my practice continues more it has become more experimental and abstract. For me taking out the figure and the text, moving toward a more pure abstraction is more emotive, it asks you to feel rather than be told what to feel. I love stories, and telling stories and this is why I was drawn to animation. I was initially a printmaker but I found myself making sets of sequential works, triptych etc. It slow became apparent to me that what tI (time limit)really wanted was to put time into my images. Aniamtion allows me to do this. Time adds story, time adds space, time makes history.

       我做工作总是不适当地唤起一份情感,但它不能直接变成故事。我想(通过它)让观看者,观众呼唤出它们自己的故事,和一些他们自己的体验。我想让观众的一部分故事也放入我自己想的那个部分中。我做一部分,我设计一部分。当我的实践继续到更多内容的时候,它开始变得更实验和更抽象了。对我来说,设计角色和文本,移动更多纯抽象的内容,会更有感情色彩的意味。它让你感觉而不是告诉你该如何去感觉。我喜欢故事,喜欢讲故事,这是为什么我做动画的原因。我最初是一个版画复制者,但是我发现我自己做很多图像排序的工作,或者三联画等。慢慢地,(这些工作)让我知道,时间限制(tl)是真正地让节奏进入我的想象中。动画总是允许我去做这些,节奏加上故事,节奏加上空间,节奏创造过程。